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ANTH 1002: Anthropology in the world
Monday, September 05, 2022
Slides available at https://anthro.rschram.org/1002/2022/6.1
Main reading: Zharkevich (2019)
Other reading: Krause and Bressan (2018); Leinaweaver (2010); Vora (2009)
As Carsten notes, when the doing of kinship through care is important, then you don’t really need a long genealogical memory of descent.
Imagine conducting a population survey or census in this community. Can you ask about parents and children? Does that matter to understanding people’s economic status, health, or residence?
The question “Who eats here?” will tend to reveal a mostly-stable group of individuals who depend on each other on a regular basis. (And Carsten would approve, I think, at least in the context of her Pulau Langkawi project.)
But “Who eats here?” also needs to be culturally contextualized. Why do we assume that the people here are a group that should get special attention in a study of people’s lives?
In many countries, people are members of households, but households don’t have one location—they span continents.
Remittances are like an invisible global economy. Even where remittances are not prominent, they are very valuable to many millions of people. They are for many people the main and perhaps only involvment they have in global capitalism. And they are a major part of global capitalism itself.
(For these facts about remittances, see the charts and tables available at the World Bank Open Data web site, especially World Bank 2022a; World Bank 2022b.)
What do remittances mean?
In the film An American Tail (Bluth 1986), a family of mice become new citizens in a “nation of immigrants.” Migration is a symbol, something that stands for something else.
Each is an alternative perspective on the act of migration that one can take. Neither is more real or more correct than the other.
Sending money home is often not about material or practical concerns. It is not an act of desperation; it’s a specific way of being a global worker, consumer, and citizen.
If you assume that kinship relations are completely different from economic relations, then temporary migration and remittance networks seem strange.
But this is just one example in which the domain of kinship and economic activity are merged. Global capitalism is for many a global informal economy.
Bluth, Don, dir. 1986. An American Tail. Animation, Adventure, Comedy. Universal Pictures, U-Drive Productions, Sullivan Studios.
Carsten, Janet. 1995. “The Politics of Forgetting: Migration, Kinship and Memory on the Periphery of the Southeast Asian State.” The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 1 (2): 317–35. https://doi.org/10.2307/3034691.
Gershon, Ilana. 2012. No Family Is an Island: Cultural Expertise Among Samoans in Diaspora. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.
Krause, Elizabeth L., and Massimo Bressan. 2018. “Circulating Children, Underwriting Capitalism: Chinese Global Households and Fast Fashion in Italy.” Current Anthropology 59 (5): 572–95. https://doi.org/10.1086/699826.
Leinaweaver, Jessaca B. 2010. “Outsourcing Care: How Peruvian Migrants Meet Transnational Family Obligations.” Latin American Perspectives 37 (5): 67–87. https://doi.org/10.1177/0094582X10380222.
Vora, Kalindi. 2009. “Indian Transnational Surrogacy and the Commodification of Vital Energy.” Subjectivity 28 (1): 266–78. https://doi.org/10.1057/sub.2009.14.
World Bank. 2022a. “Personal Remittances, Paid (Current US$).” World Bank Open Data. 2022. https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/BM.TRF.PWKR.CD.DT.
———. 2022b. “Personal Remittances, Received (Current US$).” World Bank Open Data. 2022. https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/BX.TRF.PWKR.CD.DT.
Wright, Andrea. 2020. “Making Kin from Gold: Dowry, Gender, and Indian Labor Migration to the Gulf.” Cultural Anthropology 35 (3): 435–61. https://doi.org/10.14506/ca35.3.04.
Zharkevich, Ina. 2019. “Money and Blood: Remittances as a Substance of Relatedness in Transnational Families in Nepal.” American Anthropologist 121 (4): 884–96. https://doi.org/10.1111/aman.13316.