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People are different from each other. For some scholars and thinkers, these differences don't have any important meaning. They are just variations on an underlying unity and fundamental similarity.
Anthropology is always trying to unsettle these kinds of views. When it makes claims about being a human, it starts from the view that humanity is defined by its diversity, and that there is no “normal” or “correct” way to be human.
Many kinds of differences are continuous variations rather than categorical contrasts. Height for instance is an example of continuous variation.
While there are lots of ways in which individual people are different from each other, many of these differences are continuous variation. This means that people of the same community can be as different from people from different parts of the world. Many of these differences are random and specific to individuals, and even if they are not really random, they are determined by so many different causes that there will always be a fuzziness to them in specific individuals' cases.
Many social sciences are interested in looking at differences among people objectively as something that they can measure and quantify as the value of a variable. How much money someone earns in a year, how many years of education one has, how old one are all sociological variables that people can measure numerically. Gender, race, ethnicity, nationality are all categorical sociological variables, and one can sort people into categories based on a particular definition of each concept. This approach to understanding people's lives looks at people from the outside, and sets aside what they think about who they are.
Anthropology is not opposed to this quantitative and objective approach, but it does look at things differently.
Anthropology is interested in an approach to difference which takes a qualitative and symmetrical view of people's acquired (learned) ways of thinking