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1002:2018:7.1 [2020/01/25 15:28] (current)
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 +~~DECKJS~~
 +# City air makes you free #
  
 +## City air makes you free ##
 +
 +Ryan Schram
 +
 +Mills 169 (A26)
 +
 +ryan.schram@sydney.edu.au
 +
 +September 10, 12, 2018
 +
 +Available at http://​anthro.rschram.org/​1002/​7.1
 +
 +### Reading ###
 +
 +Brenner, Suzanne. 1996. “Reconstructing Self and Society: Javanese Muslim Women and ‘the Veil.’” American Ethnologist 23 (4): 673–97. doi:​10.1525/​ae.1996.23.4.02a00010.
 +
 +
 +### Supplemental reading ### 
 +
 +Schram, Ryan. in press. "​[[:​religion_and_economy|Religion and economy]],"​ The international Encyclopedia of Anthropology:​ The Anthropology of Religion (pre-publication draft, 27 November 2015). ​
 +
 +## Before we get going ##
 +
 +Before we get going, I should mention that my slides for today are
 +much denser than usual. This lecture is also much denser and more
 +abstract. So I suggest that you concentrate on listening and use the
 +words on the screen as a guide to the main points. Don't try to copy
 +down everything on the screen. All of the slides are online on
 +http://​anthro.rschram.org.
 +
 +
 +## The rise of cities ## 
 +
 +### US urbanisation ###
 +
 +* USA 1900: 30% of people live in cities
 +* USA 1990: nearly 80% live in cities (US Census 1995).
 +
 +### World urbanisation ###
 +
 +* In 1800, 3% of the world lived in cities.
 +* In 1900, 19%.
 +* In 2000, 47% ... and recently over half of people live in cities (The Economist 2007).
 +
 +
 +What do you think are the main differences between rural and urban societies?
 +
 +## What is a contemporary society? ##
 +
 +This class is about the conditions of life and society in the contemporary world. ​
 +
 +The contemporary world is: 
 +
 +* Interconnected. Everyone lives in some kind of conjuncture of cultures and orders. ​
 +* Fluid. Societies are produced through their interactions with other cultures, and every society is a product of their history.
 +* Complex. Many different kinds of logic coexist within every society, like reciprocity and commodity exchange, or in-the-world or on-the-world
 +* Defined by unintended side-effects. All societies are changing all the time, but change goes in different directions, and history is not linear or progressive. ​
 +
 +In other words, anthropologists argue that you cannot understand life in the contemporary world by a **"​from-to"​ story**, e.g. from tradition to modernity, from oral to literate, or from sustainable husbandry to industrial exploitation. Each contemporary society is a **"​both-and"​ story**. ​
 +
 +## Multiple modernities ##
 +
 +This week we taking a second look at the concept of modernity. Today I
 +want to talk about modernity as a distinct kind of change. ​
 +
 +On Wednesday, I want to argue that there is more than one kind of
 +modernity. Specifically,​
 +
 +* All societies change, but not all societies end up being the same.
 +* Not all kinds of social change are progress.
 +
 +By the end of this week, I hope to have explained why anthropologists
 +for the most part are very skeptical that there is such a thing as
 +modernity. They prefer to talk about it as multiple modernities,​ each
 +with its own logic and history.
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +## Max Weber: the man, the myth, the sociologist ##
 +
 +Max Weber (1864-1920) is widely considered the founder of modern
 +sociology. Along with Emile Durkheim, he is credited with some of
 +social science'​s main ideas.
 +
 +Weber'​s approach to social forms starts from the view that there are
 +different types of society, and one can compare them to understand
 +each better.
 +
 +## Weber and modernity ##
 +
 +For Weber "​traditional"​ societies were different from "​modern"​
 +societies.
 +
 +Traditional societies are based on following rules because 'this is
 +the way it has always been.'
 +
 +Modern societies allow more freedom for individuals to make
 +choices. Modern societies are based on agreements between individuals.
 +
 +Weber says that modern societies are **more rational** than
 +traditional societies.
 +
 +## That doesn'​t sound like anthropology ##
 +
 +Weber did not look at cultural differences the way that
 +anthropologists do. His views about social change are ethnocentric. He
 +assumed that all societies were moving toward greater rationality,​
 +which he saw in the German state.
 +
 +Let's look at Weber'​s key ideas to see how he arrives at this idea of
 +modernity.
 +
 +## Weber'​s theory of society ##
 +
 +Weber'​s theory of society starts with the concept of "​social action"​. There are four types of social action, each based on a type of meaning they embody.
 +
 +* Traditional:​ I do it because this is how it has always been.
 +* Affective: I do it because it expresses my emotions.
 +* Value-rational:​ I do it because this is the best possible way to
 +  advance a collective goal of my society.
 +* Instrumental-rational:​ I do it because I get the most for the least
 +  amount of effort.
 +
 +## Social action and society ##
 +
 +People are always motivated to act by a combination of all four types
 +of motivation: tradition, affect, value-rationality,​ and instrumental
 +rationality.
 +
 +One type of motivation is always predominant in a single form. 
 +
 +People do different kinds of actions in different kinds of contexts. ​
 +
 +Different social institutions call on people to be different kinds of
 +actors and to think about themselves and the value of their action in
 +a certain way.
 +
 +
 +## Examples ##
 +
 +Think about these examples. Each of these actions has a different
 +meaning for the person who does them.
 +
 +Giving a fruit loaf. It's getting close to the holiday season and so
 +there'​s lots of family gatherings. You may feel obligated to do
 +something for the people hosting a party for you. Mauss would say that
 +this obligation is reciprocity. Weber didn't believe in
 +reciprocity. It's a tradition. You basically do it out of habit.
 +
 +Giving change to the Salvos. ​
 +
 +Buying ramen noodles.
 +
 +Each of these have different kind of primary motivation. Each social
 +role one plays -- relative, donor, customer -- embodies a different
 +value.
 +
 +## Religion as a type of social action ##
 +
 +What kind of value does religion embody? Or, from an actor'​s point of
 +view, what is the motivation for participating in religious worship
 +and a religious organization?​
 +
 +## Religion as a type of social action ##
 +
 +In most senses of the word, people are not motivated to participate in
 +religion for reasons of economic gain, at least not primarily. It
 +isn't **instrumentally rational**, at least not primarily.
 +
 +By the same token, religious institutions are not set up to create a
 +space for people to pursue self-interested goals.
 +
 +Many people find religion emotionally satisfying. But many people find
 +soap operas emotionally satsifying too, so that can't be the only
 +motivation.
 +
 +Tradition, yes, perhaps.
 +
 +## Religion as ethics ##
 +
 +For Weber, some religions draw people because they give them an answer
 +to the ultimate meaning of life, and show them how to be an ethical
 +person. They ask people to do things based on "value
 +rationality"​. Pursuit of a collective goal is the reason why people
 +pray, worship and participate in a religious community.
 +
 +## Religion is rationalization ##
 +
 +Religion is a force in society because it gives people an alternative
 +to tradition. It forces them to examine why they do what they do.
 +
 +In other words, religion rationalizes people'​s social behavior.
 +
 +## Religious change leads to social change ##
 +
 +Weber argued that many religious movements sowed the seeds of social
 +revolutions.
 +
 +As society became more rationalized in general, he believed people
 +would not need religion to give them motivation to be rational. They
 +could rely on systems based on instrumental rationality,​ like
 +bureaucracy and markets.
 +
 +## The Protestant Ethic ##
 +
 +The Weber thesis is that the development of an ascetic form of
 +Protestant Christianity spurred the development of market exchange and
 +capitalist production. This is presented in his famous book //The
 +Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism//​ (1905).
 +
 +## The Protestant Ethic ##
 +
 +Calvin teaches that salvation is for the elect. There'​s nothing you
 +can do to earn salvation.
 +
 +What you do with your life has nothing to do with your relationship to
 +God.
 +
 +If you were successful, it was a **sign** that you were in the
 +elect. Wealth is not valuable for its own sake.
 +
 +A person should follow one's "​calling"​ as a duty to God.
 +
 +The **means** of earning a living (a calling) are separate from the **ends**
 +(a living, wealth and success). Thus if one is wealthy, one can be
 +deatched from this wealth and deal with objectively.
 +
 +## Twist! ##
 +
 +Protestant reformers condemned people for being consumed with
 +worldliness:​ being greedy and venal. Greed is bad. 
 +
 +Because their philosophy was based on a new way of thinking of the
 +person as an individual, they actually paved the way for disembedding
 +the economy from social relationships.
 +
 +Greed is good? Not really. Weber concludes that Protestantism led to
 +people believing that self-interest is just human nature.
 +
 +## Modernization theory ##
 +
 +In the past, anthropologists and sociologists wanted to know how
 +societies became more modern, and moved toward the type of society
 +found in Europe. This school is called **"​modernization theory."​**
 +
 +Robert Bellah, Tokugawa Religion (1957).
 +
 +James Peacock, Muslim Puritans (1978). ​
 +
 +## Why is Weber'​s theory influential?​ ##
 +
 +Even though Weber was ethnocentric in some ways, he did think that
 +culture played a role in the history of society.
 +
 +The values people learn from cultural institutions,​ especially
 +religion, cause a society to change.
 +
 +## The Secularization Thesis ##
 +
 +Weber'​s argument that religion would eventually become less important
 +is called the "​secularization thesis"​
 +
 +* Religious ethics forces people to reorganize society in ways that
 +  separate traditional practices and rules from higher values.
 +* As societies become more rationalized,​ religious institutions are
 +  separated from other domains of society.
 +* Religious identity becomes a private matter.
 +* Overall, people become less involved in religious activities.
 +
 +## Problem: Secularization isn't happening ##
 +
 +For many years, people have observed a return to religion.
 +
 +As more modern forms of society have developed, new religions are
 +developing too.
 +
 +While Europe and Australia are highly secular in some ways, religion
 +is still a defining feature of people and groups.
 +
 +This is not what Weber predicted!
 +
 +## The paradox of religion ##
 +
 +Religion causes people to be rational, and to rationalize their lives
 +and their environment. But this rationality does not lead to
 +secularism or modernity in a classic sense.
 +
 +## Why revival in Java? #
 +
 +Brenner considers several theses:
 +
 +* A '​return'​ to tradition ​
 +* Symbolic shelter
 +* Maintain social esteem
 +
 +She ultimately rejects all these as insufficient explanations. ​
 +
 +## Reform and Islamic modernity ##
 +
 +She ultimately chooses to take seriously the explanation that her own
 +informants gave her.
 +
 +Brenner'​s informants described religious change as a '​movement',​ a
 +kind of training, and as self-discipline.
 +
 +In other words, it was a new way of seeing oneself. It is a means to a
 +new subjectivity.
 +
 +## Islamic modernity and Suharto'​s modernity ##
 +
 +Brenner contrasts the Islamic movement with the nationalism of the New
 +Order and the goverment of Suharto (1960s-1990s).
 +
 +**New Order**: Modernity through consumerism and capitalism.
 +
 +**Islamic movement**: Modernity through creating autonomous individual
 +believers who can choose to follow a pure Islamic ethic.
 +
 +What do these visions of the future have in common?
 +
 +What do they differ on?
 +
 +## Why secularism? ##
 +
 +**World Values Survey 2014, Australia, "How important is religion to
 +you?"​**:​
 +
 +* '​Important'​ 31.1 %
 +
 +* 'Not very important'​ or 'not at all important'​ 65.3%
 +
 +* Compared to around 60% in Scandinavian countries and 30% in the US.
 +
 +Do these figures surprise you? Why is religion so unimportant to a
 +majority of Australians,​ and for that matter, many European countries
 +too, but not the US?
 +
 +
 +
 +## References ##
 +
 +Bellah, Robert N. 1957. Tokugawa Religion: The Values of Pre-Industrial Japan. Glencoe, Ill.: The Free Press.
 +
 +The Economist. 2007. “The World Goes to Town,” May 3. http://​www.economist.com/​node/​9070726.
 +
 +Peacock, James L. 1978. Muslim Puritans: Reformist Psychology in Southeast Asian Islam. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press.
 +
 +“Urban and Rural Population: 1900 to 1990.” 1995. United States Census Bureau. October. https://​www.census.gov/​population/​censusdata/​urpop0090.txt.
 +
 +Weber, Max. 1905. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of
 +Capitalism. London: Unwin Hyman. https://​www.marxists.org/​reference/​archive/​weber/​protestant-ethic/​index.htm.
 +
 +World Values Survey. 2014. "World Values Survey Wave 6: 2010-2014:
 +Online Data Analysis: V.9 Important in Life, Religion."​ World Values
 +Survey Database. Accessed June
 +30, 2014. http://​worldvaluessurvey.org/​.
 +
 +
 +
 +## A guide to the unit ##
 +
 +{{page>​1002guide}}
1002/2018/7.1.txt · Last modified: 2020/01/25 15:28 (external edit)