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1002:2018:3.2 [2020/01/25 15:28] (current)
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 +~~DECKJS~~
 +# Develop-man # 
  
 +## Develop-man ## 
 +
 +Ryan Schram
 +
 +Mills 169 (A26)
 +
 +ryan.schram@sydney.edu.au
 +
 +August 16, 2017
 +
 +Available at http://​anthro.rschram.org/​1002/​3.2
 +
 +## What happens when a gift system encounters a market economy? ##
 +
 +When societies which are largely integrated through gifts encounter the market principle, many things can happen: ​
 +
 +* People can strive to segregate money in a separate sphere.
 +  * Auhelawa people sell garden food, but believe that buying yam seeds is shameful.
 +  * Wamira people prohibit the use of metal tools and wearing manufactured clothing in taro gardens (Kahn 1986, xi).
 +* People can also convert money and bought items into a new kind of gift.
 +  * Ongka (of Kawelka) includes money, a truck and motorbikes - bought with the proceeds from his followers'​ sale of coffee - in his //moka// to Perewa (Nairn 1976).
 +
 +## Ongka redux ##
 +
 +So now we can see Ongka in a new light. He's not a living fossil. He
 +straddles two worlds. He makes money from selling coffee, and he keeps
 +a cycle of moka going too.
 +
 +* Has a bank account
 +* Grows coffee
 +* He has also said that cash-cropping and moka should coexist
 +  (Strathern and Stewart 2004, 133).
 +
 +Ongka and other big men draw on money earned in markets to make bigger
 +gifts. Money has led to the **efflorescence** of the moka system. ​
 +
 +## Uncle Scrooge in the Land of Tralla La ##
 +
 +{{:​banks.scrooge.jpg|Uncle Scrooge #6 (June 1954)}}
 +
 +## Talk pigeon? ##
 +
 +Papua New Guinea Pidgin (*Tok Pisin*) is sometimes called
 +Neo-Melanesian English.
 +
 +**//pait// (v.): fight, strum.**
 +
 +**Man i paitim gita.** //The man strums the guitar.//
 +
 +**//stap// (v.): stop, be.**
 +
 +**Ol i stap long Mosbi.** //They are in Port Moresby.//
 +
 +**//rot// (n.): road, road, way, method, plan, strategy.**
 +
 +**Husat save rot?** //Who knows the way?//
 +
 +## Develop-man ##
 +
 +"The first commercial impulse of the local people is not to become
 +just like [the West], but more like themselves"​ (Sahlins 1992, 13).
 +
 +As a Kewa leader once told an anthropologist (paraphrase):​ "You know
 +what we mean by '​development?':​ building a //​hauslain//​
 +[a village community], a men's house, and killing pigs. This we have
 +done" (quoted in Sahlins 1992, 14).
 +
 +"//​Developman//:​ the enrichment of their own ideas of what mankind is
 +all about" (Sahlins, 1992, 14).
 +
 +
 +
 +## When a gift system meets a commodity system
 +
 +When a society organized on the basis of gifts encounters a globalizing capitalist market, many different outcomes are possible. In the next lecture and next week, we will look at other possible responses: ​
 +
 +  * Separation, tension, and conflict
 +  * Efflorescence
 +  * Transformation
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +## The two traps ##
 +
 +* The trap of nostalgia: Cultures are dying.
 +* The trap of modernism: Everything is getting better. ​
 +
 +## Positive thinking ##
 +
 +Positive thinking has deep roots in Western culture, going back to the
 +Enlightenment:​
 +
 +* There is a reason for all of this.
 +* Everything is getting better.
 +
 +Yet there has also been a *critical tradition* in Western culture
 +which has been skeptical of this.
 +
 +## Voltaire'​s Candide and Doctor Pangloss ##
 +
 +[[:​pangloss|Doctor Pangloss]] believes:
 +
 +* There is no effect without a cause, and
 +* All is for the best in, this, the best of all possible worlds.
 +
 +For Doctor Pangloss, there is no other way that things could turn out
 +
 +* "Legs are visibly designed for stockings--and we have stockings."​
 +* "Pigs were made to be eaten--therefore we eat pork..."​
 +
 +## What's next ##
 +
 +* We look more closely at buying and selling
 +  - Capitalist societies make buying and selling possible
 +  - [[:Karl Marx]] provides a social theory of capitalism and its rules
 +  - Capitalism is organized into classes, and people of each class play distinct social roles
 +  - Capitalism is contradictory. It alienates value from workers to benefit owners, but it also needs people to belong to a social whole based on interdependence and reciprocity.
 +
 +If you would like to learn more about Marxism, visit:
 +http://​marxists.org/​ for online editions of the *Manifesto*,​
 +*Capital*, and other key writings of Marx and Engels.
 +
 +
 +## References ##
 +
 +Andrae, Thomas. 2013. "​Barks,​ Carl." In Icons of the American Comic
 +Book: From Captain America to Wonder Woman, volume 1, Duncan, Randy,
 +and Matthew J. Smith, eds. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO.
 +
 +Kahn, Miriam. 1993 [1986]. Always Hungry, Never Greedy: Food and the Expression of Gender in a Melanesian Society. Long Grove, Ill.: Waveland Press.
 +
 +Nairn, Charlie. 1976. Ongka’s Big Moka. Granada Television. http://​www.der.org/​films/​ongkas-big-moka.html.
 +
 +Sahlins, Marshall. 1992. "The Economics of Develop-Man in the Pacific."​ Res 21: 13–25.
 +
 +Strathern, Andrew, and Pamela Stewart. 2004. Empowering the Past,
 +Confronting the Future: The Duna People of Papua New
 +Guinea. Basingstoke,​ Eng.: Palgrave Macmillan.
 +
 +Voltaire. 2006 [1759]. Candide. Project
 +Gutenberg. http://​www.gutenberg.org/​files/​19942/​19942-h/​19942-h.htm.
 +.
 +## A guide to the unit ##
 +
 +{{page>​1002guide}}
1002/2018/3.2.txt · Last modified: 2020/01/25 15:28 (external edit)