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2667:10 [2016/01/19 16:53]
2667:10 [2020/01/25 15:28] (current)
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 +~~DECKJS~~
 +
 +# Do all societies become secular? #
 +
 +## Do all societies become secular? ##
 +
 +Ryan Schram
 +
 +Mills 169 (A26)
 +
 +ryan.schram@sydney.edu.au
 +
 +11 May 2015
 +
 +Available at http://​anthro.rschram.org/​2667/​10
 +
 +
 +### Readings ###
 +
 +Mahmood, Saba. 2001. “Rehearsed Spontaneity and the Conventionality of Ritual: Disciplines of Şalat.” American Ethnologist 28 (4): 827–53. doi:​10.1525/​ae.2001.28.4.827.
 +
 +Deeb, Lara. 2009. “Piety Politics and the Role of a Transnational Feminist Analysis.” Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 15: S112–26.
 +
 +## Other readings ##
 +
 +Harding, Susan. 1991. “Representing Fundamentalism:​ The Problem of the Repugnant Cultural Other.” Social Research 58 (2): 373–93.
 +
 +
 +### Other media ###
 +
 +Ali, Lorraine. 2010. “For American Muslims, Choosing to Wear the Veil Poses Challenges.” The New York Times, June 11. http://​www.nytimes.com/​2010/​06/​13/​fashion/​13veil.html.
 +
 +Cohn, Nate. 2015. “Big Drop in Share of Americans Calling Themselves Christian.” The New York Times, May 12. http://​www.nytimes.com/​2015/​05/​12/​upshot/​big-drop-in-share-of-americans-calling-themselves-christian.html.
 +
 +Eltahawy, Mona. 2015. “My Unveiling Ceremony.” The New York Times, April 10. http://​www.nytimes.com/​2015/​04/​11/​opinion/​mona-eltahawy-my-unveiling-ceremony.html.
 +
 +Liptak, Adam. 2015. “Muslim Woman Denied Job Over Head Scarf Wins in Supreme Court.” The New York Times, June 1. http://​www.nytimes.com/​2015/​06/​02/​us/​supreme-court-rules-in-samantha-elauf-abercrombie-fitch-case.html.
 +
 +Perez, Michael. 2014. “Does a Women-Only Pool Mean Segregation?​ Not Quite.” The Islamic Monthly. March 30. http://​theislamicmonthly.com/​does-a-woman-only-pool-mean-segregation/​.
 +
 +Scott, Joan Wallach. 2008. “Gender Equality and Islamic Headscarves.” The Immanent Frame: Secularism, Religion and the Public Sphere, February 10. http://​blogs.ssrc.org/​tif/​2008/​02/​10/​gender-equality-and-islamic-headscarves/​.
 +
 +## Questions of religion, atheism, and secularism ##
 +
 +In many parts of the world, religions seems to be on the decline.
 +
 +* In Australia, 65.3% say religion is 'not very important'​ or 'not at
 +  all important'​ (World Values Survey 2014).
 +* In Scandinavian countries, 60% of people say religion is unimportant (ibid.).
 +* In some Western European countries, notably France, 40-30% of people
 +  profess no belief in any God, spirit, or life force (Eurobarometer 2010).
 +* In these same countries, over half do not attend any religious service.
 +
 +## Questions of religion, atheism, and secularism ##
 +
 +In other parts of the world, religious identity seems to have a new prominence. ​
 +
 +* The "​Islamic Revival"​ in the Middle East and other Muslim-majority
 +  countries.
 +* The revival of Orthodox Christianity in former Soviet states.
 +* The house church movement in China, and a general revival of
 +  interest in religious practice.
 +* The growth of Christianity in sub-Saharan Africa.
 +
 +## Religion and social change: A two-way street ##
 +
 +Based on Weber'​s ideas about religion and change, he predicted that as
 +society became more complex, and its division of labor became more
 +specialized and rational, religion would become restricted to certain
 +areas of life, and many areas of life would be completely secular and
 +indifferent to religious ideas. This has become **the secularization
 +thesis**.
 +
 +A **thesis statement** is one possible answer among many to a
 +**research question**.
 +
 +There are two pretty obvious problems with this thesis:
 +
 +* Is it based on a flawed assumption about social change. ​
 +* It really doesn'​t look at all the relevant changes in this area,
 +  only the decline of religious observance among some people.
 +
 +In short, the secularization thesis is wrong, but then again, we can
 +see now that it was really asking the wrong question. Sociology is
 +still recoving from this.
 +
 +
 +## Secularism ##
 +
 +Secularism means neutrality with respect to religion, and the absence
 +of religious influence. Specifically,​ one normally associates this
 +concept with:
 +
 +* The separation of church and state, or official neutrality on religion.
 +* One's religion is private matter, and does not affect other roles.
 +* One has freedom to worship and freedom of belief.
 +* In some cases, religious expression of any kind is banned in some
 +  areas of life, e.g. in French public schools. French secularism is
 +  better known as laïcité.
 +
 +## Why is secularism and religion so problematic?​ ##
 +
 +- France: Headscarf controversies,​ 1989-1994 (Jones 2009); burqa ban, 2014. 
 +- Australia: Ban of face coverings in the gallery of Federal Parliament, 2014.
 +- US: Sultaana Freeman denied a Florida driver'​s license, 2002.
 +- Turkey: Ban on headscarves in universities lifted, 2008.
 +
 +## Freedom of conscience ##
 +
 +The freedom of belief, thought, or conscience has historically had two elements in international law (Slotte 2010, ):
 +
 +* forum internum (internal forum)
 +* forum externum (external forum)
 +
 +What is the difference?
 +
 +## WISH: Women in Solidarity with Hijabis ##
 +
 +What is this?
 +
 +https://​www.facebook.com/​pages/​WISH-Women-In-Solidarity-with-Hijabis/​778080655582205?​sk=photos_stream
 +
 +Share what you know about this. What do you think? What are people doing here? 
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +## References ##
 +
 +Eurobarometer. 2010. "​Special Eurobarometer 341, Wave 73.1: Biotechnology Report."​ http://​ec.europa.eu/​public_opinion/​archives/​ebs/​ebs_341_en.pdf
 +
 +Eurobarometer. 2012. "​Special Eurobarometer 393, Wave EB77.4: Discrimination in the EU 2012." http://​ec.europa.eu/​public_opinion/​archives/​ebs/​ebs_393_en.pdf ​
 +
 +Jones, Nicky. 2009. “Beneath the Veil: Muslim Girls and Islamic Headscarves in Secular France.” Macquarie Law Journal 9: 47.
 +
 +Petkoff, Peter. 2012. “Forum Internum and Forum Externum in Canon Law and Public International Law with a Particular Reference to the Jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights.” Religion and Human Rights 7 (3): 183–214. doi:​10.1163/​18710328-12341236.
 +
 +Slotte, Pamela. 2010. “The Religious and the Secular in European Human Rights Discourse.” The Finnish Yearbook of International Law 21 (1): 231–86. SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 2592380.
 +
 +World Values Survey. 2014. “World Values Survey Wave 6: 2010-2014: Online Data Analysis: V.9 Important in Life, Religion.” World Values Survey Database. Accessed June 30, 2014. http://​worldvaluessurvey.org/​. ​
 +
 +
 +## A guide to the unit ##
 +
 +{{page>​2667guide}}
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +